Rock’s peony or Rock's tree peony (Paeonia rockii, also Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. rockii) is a woody species of peony that was named after Joseph Rock. It is one of several species given the vernacular name tree peony, and is native to the mountains of midwestern China, mainly in Gansu and adjoining provinces. In Chinese, it is known as 牡丹 (pinyin: mǔ dān) or 牡丹皮 (pinyin: mǔ dān pí), and its flower is called 牡丹花 (pinyin: mǔ dān huā). It became the unofficial national flower of China following a nationwide referendum in 1994.
Paeonia rockii is cultivated as an ornamental plant in Asia and the west. Like Paeonia lactiflora, another Chinese peony species, it is used as a herbal remedy in traditional Chinese medicine.
Tree peony hybrids with Paeonia rockii as one parent are called Rockii-hybrids. In China there are several cultivar groups of these hybrids, called Gansu Mudan and Zhongyuan Mudan, or North-West Chinese cultivar group. The European-grown Suffruticosa Group (Paeonia × suffruticosa) also belongs here.
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